22 enero, 2022

Manglar Vivo: protección natural a nuestras costas

Entrevista a José Manuel Guzmán Menéndez, coordinador técnico del proyecto Manglar Vivo, quien explica la historia e importancia de este proyecto.

KODAK Digital Still Camera

José Manuel Guzmán Menéndez, coordinador técnico del proyecto Manglar Vivo, perteneciente a la Agencia del Medio Ambiente, del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Medio Ambiente, accedió a hablarnos en esta entrevista sobre la historia y la importancia de este proyecto que desde hace varios años se está llevando a cabo fundamentalmente en municipios vulnerables de Artemisa y Mayabeque, donde los manglares son una barrera natural contra inundaciones, la salinización de las tierras de cultivos, erosiones y fuertes vientos, es decir una protección que el medio ambiente brinda a nuestras costas.

¿Cómo y en qué año surge la idea del proyecto Manglar Vivo? ¿Quién la inició?

Para hablar del surgimiento del proyecto Manglar Vivo hay que remontarse a los eventos meteorológicos del ciclón Wilma del año 2005 y a otros eventos ocurridos en el año 2008, que demostraron la vulnerabilidad que tenía gran parte de la zona costera del archipiélago cubano.

En ese entonces se empezó a conformar un grupo de trabajo multidisciplinario encabezado por la Agencia de Medio Ambiente. Las primeras acciones fueron las del macroproyecto, que tenía el objetivo de tratar la vulnerabilidad de la zona costera ante las inundaciones o elevación del nivel medio del mar para los años 2050 y 2100 en dependencia de los escenarios que el Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) preveía para el caso de nuestro archipiélago.

A partir de ahí empezó a surgir un proyecto, que era de manglares. Primeramente el proyecto fue sobre la salud de los mismos y después se trabajó en la tendencia del ecosistema de manglares y de otras formaciones vegetales que son importantes para la protección de la zona costera.

A partir de esos resultados se obtuvo en el año 2010 el primer Mapa de Salud del Ecosistema de Manglares en Cuba, donde habían dos sectores que eran prioritarios para trabajar y buscar fondos para revertir la situación de los manglares, el Norte de las provincias Holguín y Guantánamo y el sur en ese momento de la Provincia La Habana, actualmente Artemisa y Mayabeque.

Ya se tenía una experiencia del trabajo de gestión del manglar, se tenía el sector y apareció el Fondo de Adaptación, como un fondo que podía dar dinero para buscar soluciones verdes a una problemática específica de los bienes y servicios de ecosistema. Desde el año 2012 se empezó a escribir la primera vuelta del Fondo de Adaptación, que se aprobó en el 2013 y es en septiembre de 2014 cuando comienza a funcionar el proyecto Manglar Vivo.

¿Cuáles son los principales objetivos del proyecto Manglar Vivo?

El proyecto tiene como objetivo lograr que se fortalezcan las comunidades de las inundaciones costeras y los eventos meteorológicos que pueden traer consigo la pérdida de calidad de estas comunidades y está muy enfocado en adaptación basado en ecosistema, que significa que el proyecto busca fortalecer los bienes y servicios de los humedales costeros, fundamentalmente el manglar para la protección costera y con ello proteger los objetivos económicos y la zona de la agricultura, prioritaria para los municipios de desarrollo del proyecto porque es de donde proviene más del 30 % del agua que consume la capital y se cultiva más del 50% de la producción agrícola de La Habana, que tiene un fuerte papel en la seguridad alimentaria del occidente de nuestro archipiélago.

Tenemos 3 componentes para poder desarrollar el proyecto, el primero, que es fundamental es lograr fortalecer una franja de mangle rojo, que es el más importante en la protección de la primera línea de la zona costera, fortalecer y enriquecer los bosques costeros que por más de 500 años fueron explotados, extraídas sus maderas y afectados por los fuegos, las frontera agrícola y la introducción de especies exóticas invasoras de origen vegetal, fundamentalmente casuarinas y almendra. Lograr establecer un plan de manejo de estas especies exóticas invasoras y restablecer todas las unidades naturales que constituyen el humedal costero y la protección de estas comunidades es fundamental también para el proyecto de Manglar Vivo. Aunque el proyecto se realiza al sur de las provincias de Artemisa y Mayabeque la problemática de los manglares es de todo el archipiélago.

Así se encontraban los manglares cuando se comenzó el Proyecto. Foto: Cortesía AMA.
Gracias a la acción de Manglar Vivo se ha logrado restaurar la zona. Foto: Erick García

¿Cuáles son las problemáticas que tienen los manglares hoy día, en especial de los cubanos?

Estos lugares son donde históricamente no se vivían, por las condiciones de humedad y salinidad, lo que ocurría era que se convertían muchas áreas de manglares en áreas costeras porque se talaban o se rellenaban, lo otro es que se hacían construcciones de carreteras sobre el manglar, interrumpiendo la hidrología del manglar en muchos lugares. Donde esto se hizo murió literalmente en horas. El manglar vive en el mar, pero no puede estar más de 12 horas sin respirar, por lo tanto, es importante entender esto. Lo otro que ocurrió y sobre todo antes del triunfo de la Revolución, es que en la época de zafra muerta que eran 9 meses del año, muchas personas se dedicaban a hacer carbón del manglar y posiblemente por esto se perdieron casi el 30% de los manglares existentes en Cuba.

Otra problemática que tienen los manglares cubanos ha sido que se ha interrumpido de alguna manera los flujos de agua que lleva un manglar para poder tener la salud y la estructura que tienen. El tema caudales está todavía pendiente de estudio, porque es muy difícil determinar cuánta agua necesita un manglar para brindar bienes y servicios. Esa problemática de lograr una voluntad hidráulica donde el mínimo de agua vaya al mar ha traído consigo que la capacidad de respuesta de un manglar a reponerse ante cualquier presión natural o antrópica, es decir la resiliencia es cada vez menor. Por lo tanto, los manglares en Cuba han reducido su tamaño, han reducido su estructura y por consiguiente la capacidad de respuesta se ha reducido, es por eso que aunque el proyecto comenzó en el 2014 constituye un bloque de referencia para cualquier municipio costero, donde estén implementándose las acciones de Tarea Vida, que no es más que el fortalecimiento y las capacidades naturales para proteger la vida y el desarrollo económico del país en todo el archipiélago.

¿Cuáles son las áreas de acción del proyecto?

El proyecto se pensó primeramente en la costa de las provincias de Artemisa y Mayabeque, específicamente al sur. Tenemos 6 municipios involucrados, 3 de provincia Artemisa que son los municipios son Artemisa, Alquízar y Güira de Melena. En el caso de Mayabeque tenemos al municipio de Batabanó con su surgidero de Batabanó, un lugar referente del proyecto, al municipio Melena y a Güines, o sea estamos hablando que estamos trabajando desde Punta Majana hasta Punta Mora, 84 km de costa, esto es lo que dice el proyecto, pero nosotros hemos logrado extender acciones y experiencias de Manglar Vivo en otros lugares del archipiélago cubano, estamos hablando de la Bahía de la Habana, Camagüey, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Río, la Bahía de Caimanera, donde estamos ayudando a un trabajo de restauración.

Fundamentalmente estas son las áreas de acción del proyecto y directamente estamos trabajando en toda la franja de humedal costero con asentamiento de gran importancia como Majana, Guanímar, Cajío, Surgidero de Batabanó y Playa Mayabeque. Estamos trabajando donde llega la modelación de ascenso del nivel medio del mar para los escenarios 2050-2100 a la cuota del macroproyecto. Además, beneficiarios indirectos del proyecto van a ser todos los pobladores de estos 6 municipios de Artemisa, Alquízar y Güira de Melena, Batabanó, Güira de Melena y a Güines; estamos hablando de 1,2 millones de personas, o sea es una cifra importante y donde existen además otros proyectos que se encargan de la gestión del agua y de las buenas prácticas agrícolas que es lo necesario para poder hacer una buena gestión del manglar.

Manglar Vivo confluye con otros proyectos y, así, avanza, se adapta y desarrolla en toda la costa perteneciente a Artemisa, Alquízar y Güira de Melena, desde Majana hasta playa Cajío. (Tomado del Citma)

¿Cuáles son las técnicas de rehabilitación? ¿Cuáles las especies de mangles de esas zonas?

En Cuba hay 4 especies de mangles fundamentalmente, de árboles, sin embargo, en los manglares, una vez que estén establecidos los bosques, existen otras especies de la flora y fauna, incluso de los hongos que habitan en el manglar. En esta región se hicieron muchas carreteras paralelas a la línea de costa para unir todos estos asentamientos. Eso trajo consigo que se perdieran más de 150 metros de frente de costa y fundamentalmente desapareció toda la franja protectora de mangle rojo. Las acciones de restauración que se están haciendo en este proyecto son muy novedosas para Cuba, no es sembrar, estamos primeramente restableciendo la hidrología del lugar y después en los lugares donde ya no existen esta primera franja de mangle rojo se está plantando o se está manejando con regeneración natural. Son conceptos nuevos, de hecho, lo estamos escribiendo, estamos haciendo nichos de plantación que no es más que una simulación acelerada de mangle rojo donde desapareció. Estamos haciendo el estaquillado, que consiste en un sistema de estacas simulando a las raíces de los mangles, para aguantar la erosión y que de tiempo al establecimiento y siembra de mangle rojo en esa costa, donde se perdió el mangle por acciones del hombre.

Estamos trabajando además la regeneración natural, islas de plantación, que no es más que el reforzamiento de los pequeños crecimientos de mangle rojo para poderlo sellar. Son diferentes acciones que estamos realizando. No es que una sea mejor que la otra, cada sitio en dependencia de la afectación que tuvo es la acción que se le realiza. Nuestro objetivo fundamental es que esa primera franja de más de 50 metros hasta 100 metros que tenía de mangle rojo por toda esa costa pueda ser o restaurada o rehabilitada y cuando digo restaurada significa donde ya no existe llegar a establecerlo y donde existe el bosque de mangle prieto que es el bosque que viene a continuación que no tiene la misma capacidad de protección, ahí tenemos entonces que recrear un bosque parecido al bosque de mangle rojo que se perdió. Aunque te he hablado de mangle rojo fundamentalmente, el mangle prieto no hay que trabajarlo, él tiene capacidad de restauración y el patojal que es otra especie de mangle, existe también en la zona, pero fundamentalmente estamos dirigidos a trabajar con el mangle rojo.

Trabajo de siembra de Mangle en el sur artemiseño, Playa Guanímar. Foto: Erick García.

¿Cómo tomó la comunidad el desarrollo del proyecto? ¿Cuáles fueron los pasos dados para incluir a las personas que viven en la zona?

Tenemos una gran receptividad de la comunidad.  En cada comunidad costera tenemos un círculo de interés. Cada uno le ha puesto nombres diferentes, pero la mayoría le han puesto Círculo de interés Manglar Vivo. Son niños que están siempre ávidos de que nosotros vayamos, los llevemos al campo y los enseñemos. Hay personas que nacieron ahí, pero ni siquiera tenían la capacidad de entender cuán importante es el lugar donde vivían, porque lo más común era que las personas migraran u otras se dedicaran a acciones ilegales de extracción del bosque, tala de maderas, tala de mangles y otras problemáticas que tenían. Ya esas personas están cuidando el manglar porque saben que significa para ellos mantener su forma de vida, fundamentalmente la pesca y cuán importante es el manglar para el mantenimiento de estas actividades. Para nosotros ha sido muy importante además el trabajo con las escuelas.

(Otra Autora: Yanel Blanco)

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