23 junio, 2021

Coronavirus: ¿cómo ha evolucionado el 2019-nCoV?

Ante la confirmación de nuevos casos de coronavirus en varios países, la OMS que se esperan más contagios y llamó a las autoridades a estar preparadas.

coronavirus

La primera alerta del nuevo brote de coronavirus en China fue recibida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud el 31 de diciembre de 2019.

Una nueva cepa de coronavirus, conocida como 2019-nCoV mantiene en vilo a ciudadanos y autoridades sanitarias de todo el mundo. La neumonía de Wuhan, como también se le llama por la ciudad China donde surgió, forma parte de una familia de virus que se identifica por su peculiar aspecto cuando se observa bajo el microscopio electrónico.

Wuhan
Wuhan, la ciudad china donde estalló el brote de un nuevo coronavirus, es una urbe de 11 millones de personas.                  Foto: kpbs.org

“Estos virus tienen un aspecto redondeado, con forma de corona en su envoltura y por eso el nombre de coronavirus. Habitualmente, afectan tanto a seres humanos como a animales», explica la Dra. Vivian Kourí, Vicedirectora primera del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí,en exclusiva para el Observatorio Científico.

coronavirus bajo microscopio electrónico
Coronavirus bajo el microscopio electrónico. Foto: Wikipedia.

La viróloga cubana también señala que » en seres los humanos, 4 tipos de virus (NL63, 229E, OC43, HKU1) son los que producen enfermedades y, por lo general, provocan un resfriado común con síntomas respiratorios leves y también se caracterizan porque pueden producir zoonosis, o sea, los virus pueden pasar de un animal a los seres humanos y producir enfermedades en ellos”.

En el caso particular del 2019-nCoV y según la Revista de Virología Médica, las investigaciones más recientes sugieren que se trata de un virus de murciélagos y serpientes. Las mutaciones le permitieron pasar de animales a seres humanos, hasta llegar a la transmisión de persona a persona.

El nuevo coronavirus es similar al que provocó el Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo (SARS) que también apareció por primera vez en China en 2002 y causó más de 800 muertes. Una década después, el Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio (MERS) dejó 850 víctimas mortales y cerca de 2.500 personas contagiadas. Por eso, una de las preguntas más frecuentes sobre la neumonía de Wuhan se relaciona con su letalidad.

“En realidad no se saben todos los datos porque este, como hemos hablado, es un nuevo virus, pero se estima que la letalidad está alrededor de un 3%. Si comparamos este virus con los otros virus que han producido zoonosis, como SARS y MERS, realmente la letalidad es mucho menor, en los otros casos se hablaba desde un 10 hasta un 35% de mortalidad. Sin embargo, no podemos descartar que esto se vaya modificando con el tiempo, un vez que el virus se va adaptando a los seres humanos puede producir mayor virulencia, mayor tasa se transmisibilidad y por eso hay que estar pendientes a cada momento de la evolución viral”.

corovanirus China
Ante la confirmación de nuevos casos de coronavirus en varios países, este fin de semana, la Organización Mundial de la Salud alertó que se esperan más contagios y llamó a las autoridades a estar preparadas. Foto: Internet

Aunque estamos ante una delicada situación sanitaria internacional, un hecho positivo ha sido la inmediatez con la que expertos chinos obtuvieron la secuencia genética del nuevo coronavirus y la pusieron a disposición de la comunidad científica mundial.

“Esto permitió diseñar nuevos sistemas diagnósticos basados en métodos moleculares que ya en estos momentos están disponibles. La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha divulgado estos protocolos entre los países miembros dentro de los cuales se encuentra Cuba y en breves tendremos acceso a estos reactivos. Mientras tanto Cuba tiene disponible el diagnóstico de 23 virus respiratorios que permiten hacer un diagnóstico diferencial que permite descartar ,en aquellos pacientes que tengan sintomatología respiratoria, si se trata de otro de los agentes virales y así estar seguros de que no está presente el coronavirus,» asegura la Dra. Kourí.

Hasta el momento no existe tratamiento específico ni vacuna para la neumonía de Wuhan. El énfasis de la asistencia médica está en el alivio de los síntomas. Las autoridades sanitarias recomiendan prevenir la propagación del virus mediante acciones que van desde cubrirnos la boca al toser hasta evitar el contacto con personas que presentan enfermedades respiratorias.

En la semana que comienza, autoridades del Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba darán a conocer  las estrategias que se implementarán a nivel nacional para evitar un posible impacto de este coronavirus en el país.

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